June 20, 2018






Announcing our 2018 Wonderful Public Service Graduate Fellows

The Maddy Institute

Now in its fourth year of investing in the next generation of San Joaquin Valley leaders, The Wonderful Company and The Maddy Institute announced the winners of the 2018 Wonderful Public Service Graduate Fellowship today. These Fellowships are made possible by a generous gift totaling $112,000 from Lynda and Stewart Resnick, co-owners of The Wonderful Company.


Tulare mayor Jones ousted from his job amid public outcry


Tulare's mayor, Carlton Jones has been ousted from his job amid public outcry over comments he made regarding the ag industry. The Tulare City Council voted unanimously, with even Jones voting to name a new mayor.

See also:

     Carlton Jones urges Tulare residents to 'out-love' him, replaced as mayor Visalia Times-Delta

     Far-reaching effects of Mayor Carlton Jones Visalia Times-Delta


Chris Harrell, Alex Gutierrez want to be Tulare City Council members

Visalia Times-Delta

Chris Harrell announced he will run for the Tulare City Council seat currently held by newly-named Mayor David Macedo.


New budget is 'best' one 'that I've seen,' Merced councilmember says

Merced Sun Star

Merced adopted a $233 million budget this week, what one councilmember called the "best budget" he's seen in his eight-year tenure.


Fight for new California hits Tulare County

Visalia Times-Delta

Eric Campbell says he wants 51 states, splitting The Golden State in two to create the state of New California. Campbell, a Tulare County resident, said the new state will create an opportunity for better political representation and present the chance to address education, taxes and water rights and use — the very issues that have him calling to break up California.




Poll finds Newsom has a commanding lead over Cox in California governor's race

Los Angeles Times

Democrat Gavin Newsom has a dominant lead over Republican John Cox in California’s race for governor, a contest in which a significant number of voters appear to have cast ballots strategically to sway the outcome of the state’s top-two primary, according to a new USC Dornsife/Los Angeles Times poll.

See also:

     After bitter primary clash, Villaraigosa pledges to help Newsom win California governor's race Los Angeles Times

     In race for California governorship, Newsom and Villaraigosa pledge unity EdSource


Don’t split up California, says GOP governor candidate John Cox

San Francisco Chronicle

Republican gubernatorial hopeful John Cox does not support a ballot initiative pushed by venture capitalist Tim Draper to split California into three states, saying there is a simpler answer: “We need to do a better job of managing the state.”

See also:

     John Cox Deflects Questions On Immigration, Climate Change Sacramento Bee


Garcetti bashes California's top-two primary while Schwarzenegger wants it to go nationwide

Los Angeles Times

Is California’s top-two primary system a “sell job” or has a “better political culture” emerged because of it?  In one corner we have Los Angeles’ Democratic Mayor Eric Garcetti,and in the other we haveSilicon Valley Rep. Ro Khanna and Arnold Schwarzenegger.


Finding a new way? A group of California Republicans looks to recast the party

Sacramento Bee

California Republicans working toward what they believe will be the restoration of their party have launched a website.


Nancy Pelosi intervenes in California net neutrality battle

San Francisco Chronicle

Ahead of a committee hearing Wednesday morning on two state net neutrality bills, House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi sent a letter to the committee chair urging him to pass “comprehensive protections” in the state — a move that elevates California’s net neutrality fight to the national level.


Prank robo calls plague California lawmakers, top Democratic campaigns

Sacramento Bee

In an email to Assembly members and staff on Monday night, Mark Hoover, deputy chief sergeant-at-arms, said "several legislators in the Assembly and Senate have received phone calls and/or messages from an individual who appeared to be in distress, pleading for help saying, 'I can't breathe!'"




After the Supreme Court’s inaction, the gerrymandering battle continues


Political scientist Thomas Mann argues that the Supreme Court’s Monday decision not to rule on two partisan redistricting cases indicates only that the justices are no closer to entering the political thicket of gerrymandering than they were when the last major case was heard in 2004.


EDITORIAL: Trump can’t pardon his way out of peril

San Francisco Chronicle

President Trump continues to advance the absurd idea that he is beyond the reach of the law. If every Trump minion in a jam can count on clemency, then perhaps the president won’t have to test hisdubious claim that he can pardon himself.




Pew Tackles Opinion Quandary for News Consumers

Courthouse News Service

In a media study where a quarter of participants struggled to separate fact and opinion, researchers found that making the distinction came easier to those who are politically informed, tech-savvy and trusting of national news outlets.


Republicans show they don’t trust the voters

Washington Post

President Trump tweeted triumphantly on Monday, “Just won big Supreme Court decision on Voting! Great News!” The great news in his book is a 5-4 decision allowing Ohio to remove people from the voting rolls who haven’t voted in every election.


A more-than-minimal democracy


First, with its ideals of freedom, political equality, and accountability, democracy can be seen as intrinsically valuable. Second, self-governance, or democracy, might be associated with better political, economic, and social outcomes than its alternatives.




Sunday, June 24, at 10 a.m. on ABC 30 – Maddy Report“Immigration: Dreaming in a Sanctuary State”​ – Guests: Laura Hill with the Public Policy Institute of California, Taryn Luna with the Sacramento Bee, and Dan Walters with CALmatters. Host: Maddy Institute Executive Director, Mark Keppler.


Sunday, June 24, at 10 a.m. on Newstalk 580AM/105.9FM (KMJ) – Maddy Report ​ - Valley Views Edition​: “Income Inequality and Immigration: Are They Related?”​ – Guests: Laura Hill with the Public Policy Institute of California, Taryn Luna with the Sacramento Bee, Dan Walters with CALmatters, California Budget Center Policy Analyst Luke Reidenbach, and National Federation of Independent Business (NFIB) California State Director Tom Scott. Host: Maddy Institute Executive Director, Mark Keppler.


Sunday, June 24, at 7:30 a.m. on UniMas 61 (KTTF) – El Informe Maddy: “Higher Education and Path in California”  Guests: PPIC Olga Rodriguez and Marisol Cuellar. Host: Maddy Institute Program Coordinator, Maria Jeans.


Support the Maddy Daily HERE.


Thank you!





Immigration reform to ease farm labor crunch could face new and unexpected hurdles


The Trump administration's pledge to modernize the nation's temporary agriculture worker visa program could face new obstacles if it's dependent on broader immigration reform.


As Carbon Dioxide Levels Rise, Major Crops Are Losing Nutrients


Plants need carbon dioxide to live, but its effects on them are complicated. As the level of carbon dioxide in the air continues to rise because of human activity, scientists are trying to pin down how the plants we eat are being affected.


Out with soda, juice and chocolate milk—California could become first state to restrict kids’ meals


Under a bill advancing in the Capitol, restaurants could offer only water or milk with meals marketed for children. Not soda. Not juice. Not chocolate milk.


You can now find marijuana laws for every California city using your Amazon Alexa

Riverside Press Enterprise

Navigating California’s confusing patchwork of marijuana laws just got easier. If you own an Amazon Echo product, you can now ask Alexa – the brain behind Amazon’s smart-speaker platform – to tell you the rules for any city or county in California.






Elder abuse on the rise, protecting the 'vulnerable' is key

Visalia Times-Delta

June is World Elder Abuse Awareness Month. On Tuesday, each report of elder abuse in Tulare County was recognized with a purple flag placed on the front lawn of Government Plaza. Those who work with the elderly community in Tulare County placed more than 2,800 flags.


Police say no deal on California bill to restrict their use of force

Sacramento Bee

Law enforcement organizations are unlikely to compromise with advocates of a proposal this session to restrict the circumstances under which police officers could use deadly force. Their staunch opposition significantly diminishes the prospects for Assembly Bill 931.

See also:

     California advances biggest US change to police use of force AP News

     EDITORIAL: Bad cops have it too easy in California. Here's how the Legislature can change that Sacramento Bee

     Activists begin 8 days of protest, seek accountability for Stephon Clark, Brandon Smith Sacramento Bee


Gauging a key crime-fighting tool

Stockton Record

Stockton got smarter about crime in 2006 when a Harvard expert outlined the way to reduce the city’s gun violence. Whether Stockton’s been effective is the big question.


California deals with dementia among aging inmates


There are about 18,400 inmates over the age of 55 in California prisons, according to the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation.  It is a swelling population that has led authorities to take the first steps toward creating a dementia unit at the state’s main prison medical facility in the San Joaquin Valley city of Stockton, Reuters has learned.


Public Safety:


There are more guns than people in the United States, according to a new study of global firearm ownership

Washington Post

There are more than 393 million civilian-owned firearms in the United States, or enough for every man, woman and child to own one and still have 67 million guns left over.

See also:

     Report says over 1 billion small arms in world, up from 2007 AP News


Should Statutes of Limitations for Rape Be Abolished?

New York Times

Across the country, time-limiting laws prevent scores of sexual assault cases from being prosecuted, in spite of persuasive evidence or a confession.


Fireworks season sparks reminders about safety and avoiding illegal products

Bakersfield Californian
"We would prefer that people go to a professional fireworks show, a show that viewers can enjoy from a safe distance," Frando said. "But if people are going to use personal fireworks, please use them as designed."




Fire crews gaining ground on Wheeler Fire in Mariposa County


Crews are making significant progress fighting the Wheeler Fire near the town of Coulterville in Mariposa County. CalFire first reported that they were responding to reports of a fire around 12:15 pm Monday.


Evacuations ordered near Coulterville as fires break out throughout the region

Modesto Bee

Firefighters battled blazes across the region, including one near Coulterville that has prompted mandatory evacuations in the area. The Wheeler fire broke out Monday afternoon near Coulterville, according to the California Department of Fire and Forestry Protection.


Erin Brockovich joins legal team suing PG&E over October wildfires

Santa Rosa Press Democrat

Celebrity environmental crusader Erin Brockovich, made famous by an Oscar-winning film about her work fighting PG&E, has joined the legal team representing more than 1,500 North Bay residents suing the utility company over last year’s wildfires.






Bills headed for state Senate would put limits on payday, auto-title lending

Los Angeles Times

State legislators killed a bill that would have reshaped much of California’s consumer lending market, but two more-modest bills made it through the state Assembly and now move on to the Senate.


Our tariffs are bigger


China mirroring American tariffs serves to maintain the bilateral deficit. And, fitting President Trump’s flip comment that trade wars are easy to win, he has a seemingly easy option: impose tariffs on more Chinese exports to the US than the total for American exports to the PRC.

See also:

     The trade war’s collateral damage AEI

     Trump’s New Round of Tariffs Likely Will Hit Consumers Directly Wall Street Journal

     White House Is Confident It Has an Edge Over China in Trade Dispute Wall Street Journal

     EDITORIAL: The GOP’s Trade Abdication Wall Street Journal


Should We Worry about the Flattening Yield Curve?

National Review

It’s Time to Pay Attention to the Bond Markets.




California Employment Report for May 2018
California Center for Jobs & the Economy

California’s seasonally adjusted unemployment rate remained at 4.2%, the lowest level in the current data series that began in 1976, as the labor force continued to ease downwards for the third month in a row.

See also:

     What is behind that record-breaking state unemployment rate data? AEI


Valley unemployment down, but many still hunting for a job


Job seekers and employers took advantage of a one-stop shop Tuesday morning in Downtown Fresno. Which included recent Fresno State grads wasting no time searching for work.


Valley employers need mechanics; people need jobs. How this program serves both

Modesto Bee

Opportunity Stanislaus and its industry partners created the VOLT Institute for adults like Gustavo Amezcua of Oakdale. Amezcua, 27, worked as an operator for Rizo Lopez Foods before the company gave him the chance to become a maintenance mechanic at the McClure Road cheese-making plant.


Fox: An Old Tale: Help is Coming for Public Unions from Legislative Majority

Fox & Hounds

Spooked by the imminent prospect of losing mandatory dues from bargaining unit employees, widely anticipated in the soon-to-be announced Janus case, California government employee unions have hauled out some of their most ambitious countermeasures to date and are rushing them through the legislature.

How to ensure economic growth benefits all Americans


In an information-driven economy, properly trained talent and entrepreneurial risk-taking, not savings, constrain growth. Constrained talent and risk-taking, rather than capital, have profound distributional effects on the economy.






KHSD board to consider policy changes relating to student immigration status

Bakersfield Californian

The Kern High School District is looking to make significant changes to a few of its policies, largely regarding student immigration status. The district’s board of trustees is holding a special meeting to consider first readings of four district policies that have been updated as required by laws passed by the state last year.


The value of a civics education vs. a dependence on metrics and outcomes

Fresno Bee

In earlier times, the view prevailed that instruction in American history, civics, ideals, and great leaders, reinforced throughout grades K-12, would, save for incorrigibles, generally promote responsible citizens of good character.


Higher Ed:


California is creating one big online community college


Lawmakers included $100 million in this year's state budget to create an online community college that will offer certificate and credentialing programs. It will get another $20 million annually.


$ending Kids to College Ain't What It Used to Be

Weekly Standard

Whatever a college education is worth, it sure as hell isn’t worth what we’re paying for it.


UC granted a key CRISPR gene editing patent        

Mercury News

The University of California has scored a victory in the multi-fronted war for rights to CRISPR-Cas9 technology, a powerful tool for editing genomes.






Artificial turf fields are failing across Southern California, costing millions. Here’s why.

Daily Bulletin

“About four years after our fields were installed, all four were failing, including fibers breaking, splitting and thinning,” said Rick Wiersma, Chaffey’s assistant superintendent of business.


Colorado joins California in fight to prevent Trump from weakening auto emissions rules

Los Angeles Times

As the Trump administration moves to roll back ambitious vehicle-emissions targets, California and several other states that rely on those standards to achieve their clean air goals have enlisted an influential new partner in the fight to keep the rules intact.




Grid-expansion bill narrowly passes state Senate committee

San Diego Union-Tribune

The state Senate committee that oversees energy and utilities agreed to move forward on a bill Tuesday that would expand the California power grid to as many as 14 states, but the legislation was not wholly embraced.

See also:

     Bill to share control of California’s electric grid advances San Francisco Chronicle






Trump Administration Finalizes Rule on Health Plans
Roll Call

The Trump administration on Tuesday finalized a rule expanding the availability of alternative insurance plans that do not meet the 2010 health care law’s requirements despite objections from consumer advocates and the industry.

See also:

     Trump administration finalizes rule to allow for skimpier health plans Los Angeles Times

     House GOP budget sets up massive safety net cuts, Obamacare repeal bid Politico


EDITORIAL: Exit From ObamaCare

Wall Street Journal

One perverse effect of the Affordable Care Act is that corporate America escaped some of the onerous mandates that hurt small enterprises.


Disability Applications Plunge as the Economy Strengthens

New York Times

The number of Americans seeking Social Security disability benefits is plunging, a startling reversal of a decades-old trend that threatened the program’s solvency.


Dialysis dispute targets billing, health

Capitol Weekly

Senate Bill 1156 would require that patients receiving third-party assistance would either need to enroll in Medicare or Medi-Cal (for those who are low income), or if they choose to stay on private insurance, they will only receive reimbursement at Medicare or Medi-Cal’s much lower rates.


EDITORIAL: Coffee isn't going to kill anyone. California needs a smarter system to let us know what's dangerous

Los Angeles Times

Los Angeles Superior Court Judge Elihu M. Berle ruled in March that coffee should carry the warning labels mandated by California’s Proposition 65 because the brew contains acrylamide, a chemical that some studies found increases the incidence of cancer in rats.


Kaweah Delta: "It is unrealistic to re-open TRMC by October"

Visalia Times-Delta

In a letter to Tulare Regional Medical Center officials on Monday, Kaweah Delta's CEO said the Visalia hospital is interested in partnering with Tulare. But the partnership comes with three "caveats" that could make teaming up harder.


Human Services:


Kern County supervisors appoint homeless coordinator

Bakersfield Californian

The Kern County Homeless Collaborative has adopted a new 10-year plan to end homelessness in the county, and the Kern County Board of Supervisors has assigned a new coordinator to help get the job done.




30,000 migrant children could be separated from families by August, Costa says

Fresno Bee

Rep. Jim Costa visited the U.S.-Mexico border Monday to learn what challenges border patrol agents face on a daily basis and see an increasingly controversial policy with his own eyes on the eve of a possible House vote on immigration reform.

See also:

     EDITORIAL: Border-detention policy breaking up families is an outrage, and needs to end now Fresno Bee

     Fact check: What's really going on with immigrant children being detained at the border? Visalia Times-Delta

     Youngest migrants held in 'tender age' shelters  ABC30

     McCarthy must say where he stands on child separation policy Bakersfield Californian

     'Playrooms of crying children.' U.S. opens more facilities to hold 2,300+ young kids separated so far from parents at border Hanford Sentinel

     EDITORIAL: Taking children from parents is immoral Modesto Bee

     House immigration plan would allow families to be detained together Modesto Bee

     Trump's border security boss should resign over family separation policy, Democrats say Sacramento Bee

     Where do kids separated from parents at border go? Some are in California Sacramento Bee

     EDITORIAL: He’s why Trump separates families, cages kids. What did California do to Stephen Miller? Sacramento Bee

     EDITORIAL: Trump is using children as political bargaining chips. It doesn't get more crassly cynical Los Angeles Times

     Janet Napolitano, former Homeland Security chief, explains why she said no to family separation Los Angeles Times

     Faulconer, chamber urge Trump to stop separating immigrant families San Diego Union-Tribune

     California officials divided on 'zero-tolerance' immigration policy KCRA 3

     Feinstein on family separations: ‘This is the United States of America. It isn't Nazi Germany’ The Hill

     Immigration by the numbers Brookings

     Q and A: Understanding the controversy over separating families at the border Washington Post

     Analysis: Trump Repeats False Claim on Dems, Family Separation Roll Call

     G.O.P. Moves to End Trump’s Family Separation Policy, but Can’t Agree How New York Times

      Republicans Propose Stand Alone Fix for Family Separations National Review

      Trump Sidesteps Family Separations in Talks With GOP Wall Street Journal


Thousands of legal immigration slots would be slashed under House plan

Sacramento Bee

Tens of thousands of immigrants will be barred from entering the country under the compromise plan the House is about to consider.

See also:

     Trump urges House GOP to fix immigration system, expresses no strong preference on rival bills amid uproar over family separations Washington Post

     Forget Tax Cuts. Trump Wants to Rally G.O.P. Base Over Immigration New York Times

     House Immigration Compromise Faces Dim Prospects Amid Conservative Opposition Roll Call

     A Mixed Bag on Immigration National Review

     EDITORIAL: Congress Should Act on the Border National Review


Jerry Brown is asked to pull troops from California border as Trump separates families

Sacramento Bee

State Sen. Kevin de León is asking Gov. Jerry Brown to pull California National Guard members from the border in response to President Donald Trump's policy to separate children from migrant families.

See also:

     Jerry Brown to keep National Guard deployment amid backlash to family separations at border Desert Sun

     De León urges Gov. Brown to end California National Guard cooperation with Trump Los Angeles Times

      Migrants Keep Crossing Southern U.S. Border, Undeterred by Risks Wall Street Journal


Fresno groups helping children caught up in immigration courts


The public outcry has been growing over the separation of children and parents at the US-Mexico border. More lawmakers on both sides of the aisle agreed it was important to keep the families together. Two Fresno organizations have been helping the children get through a tough time.

See also:

      L.A. County officials oppose Trump administration's 'zero tolerance' policy, direct agencies to assist children Los Angeles Times

      California to defend immigration laws against Trump AP News




Land Use:


Fresno City Council takes step toward funding senior center

Fresno Bee

A crowd of senior citizens who attended last week's Fresno City Council meeting didn't even have time to unroll the banner they brought when the council agreed to get the ball rolling to find funding for a senior center — something Fresno doesn't have.


Proposed Clovis assisted living complex unlikely to get city council approval

Fresno Bee

After a five-hour public hearing Monday night, the Clovis City Council appears headed toward rejecting a proposal to build an assisted living home development in northwest Clovis.


Gotta go? Three Rivers finally gets public restroom

Visalia Times-Delta

Three Rivers has a little more than 2,000 residents. But some 2 million visitors pass through the gateway town every year to Sequoia and Kings Canyon national parks. Residents and business owners have been wishing for some solution to an uncomfortable fact, there's no public restroom in town.




Proposition 13: 40 Years Later

Public Policy Institute of California

This year marks the 40th anniversary of Proposition 13—the landmark citizens’ initiative that limits the property tax rate to 1% of assessed value at the time of purchase and restricts annual tax increases to no more than 2% until the property is sold.


Use tax breaks to combat homelessness, candidates for California governor say

Sacramento Bee

More people are homeless in California than anywhere else in the country as home prices and rental costs rise. When state populations are taken into account, the Golden State ranks second behind Hawaii for its number of unsheltered residents.


The Median Home Price In California Now Exceeds $600,000

Capital Public Radio

The median price for a home in California has topped the $600,000 mark for the first time ever, according to the latest report from the California Association of Realtors. You can blame the Bay Area and other red hot high-cost areas for the increase




Fresno's additional tax revenue splits council


Fresno City leaders are still working to approve a balanced budget after the council announced Tuesday it was postponing its vote until Thursday's meeting at the earliest.


City Council to take up sales tax at Wednesday’s meeting

Bakersfield Californian

After all the talk and preparation, the Bakersfield City Council finally is set for a vote that would allow a 1 percent sales tax increase to appear on local ballots this November.


Merced's adopted budget hits 'strong' $233M, mayor says

Merced Sun-Star

Merced adopted a $233 million budget this week, what one councilmember called the "best budget" he's seen in his eight-year tenure.


Walters: Budget trailer bills have become Christmas trees


The Legislature is using a budget “trailer bill” to deprive voters of vital information about local government and school bond issues. The legislation, drafted without public hearings or other input, would suspend for two years a new law requiring proposed bond measures to

reveal to voters how they would affect property tax bills.


How California Lawmakers Goosed Jackpots To Create Record-Setting Lottery Sales


The California Lottery is minting money. This year, revenues will soar to $6.9 billion.
That not only breaks a record, it more than doubles the amount from just a few years before.


Calpers Votes to Pay Next Investment Chief Up to $1.77 Million


The maximum pay would be more than double the compensation for the current CIO, who’s retiring this year, an acknowledgment that Calpers must compete for talent with other public pensions as well as the private sector. Calpers manages about $354.5 billion in assets.


See the 100 highest pensions in the CalPERS and CalSTRS systems

Sacramento Bee

How much does it take to make it into the 100 top-earning CalPERS or CalSTRS retirees? A pension of more than $219,000.


We should allow all taxpayers to deduct charitable contributions


Under the new law, millions of taxpayers will no longer deduct their charitable contributions on their income tax returns, eroding a tax incentive that has long spurred individual giving.




Drivers will need to watch out for high-speed rail utility work in northwest Fresno

Fresno Bee

Drivers on West Shaw Avenue near Highway 99 in northwest Fresno will have some high-speed rail construction to contend with for the next few weeks.

See also:

       High-speed rail construction in Kings County Hanford Sentinel


Major road projects ahead for Northwest Visalia


Some major roadwork will be taking place along one of Visalia's busiest thoroughfares over

the next few weeks. Drivers should expect to slow down, and possibly detour.


Part of State Route 99 to be reduced to one lane on Wednesday

Bakersfield Californian

Caltrans has announced lane closures on State Route 99 from 3 a.m. to 3 p.m., Wednesday, weather permitting.




Under ‘Iron Lady of Water,’ San Diego Secured Its Own Supply – at a Price

Voice of San Diego

In just two decades, the agency’s first female general manager accomplished what generations of men had not: Under her leadership, San Diego acquired its own supplies.




Fresno County law enforcement joins forces for Torch Run, in support of Special Olympics

Fresno Bee

Members of Fresno County law enforcement agencies and Special Olympics athletes gathered at Chukchansi Park on Tuesday for the Law Enforcement Torch Run.


Updated: Fresno Summer Checklist

The Fresnan

This year’s Summer has started out pretty mild, you have to admit. But there are a few months of heat and whatnot inevitably ahead.


Fresno's largest no-kill shelter expanding their medical services

ABC 30

Five days a week, from opening until closing, the Valley Animal Center Clinic serves the community and their four-legged friends.


New chocolate shop opens in Merced


The Chocolate Dipper along Main Street and Martin Luther King Junior Way in Merced is now open. On Tuesday, Action News took a look inside and from fresh caramel apples, to chocolate treats, there's something for all dessert lovers.




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Maddy Institute Updated List of San Joaquin Valley Elected Officials HERE.


The Kenneth L. Maddy Institute at California State University, Fresno was established to honor the legacy of one of California’s most principled and effective legislative leaders of the last half of the 20th Century by engaging, preparing and inspiring a new generation of governmental leaders for the 21st Century. Its mission is to inspire citizen participation, elevate government performance, provide non-partisan analysis and assist in providing solutions for public policy issues important to the region, state and nation.


This document is to be used for informational purposes only. Unless specifically noted, The Maddy Institute at California State University, Fresno does not officially endorse or support views that may be expressed in the document. If you want to print a story, please do so now before the link expires. ​​​​​​​



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